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Their day would begin at sunrise, when they would eat breakfast together and afterwards, take care of chores before they went fishing.

During the evening, Mau would join the men in the canoe house as they drank, listening to their stories about navigation and sailing.

Raangipi told the young boy that if he chose to become a navigator, Mau could gain respect from his community, eat well, and maintain a position in Satawalese society higher than that of a chief.

Encouraged, Mau learned basic navigational clues regarding the "stars, swells, and birds" from Raangipi, but his grandfather died sometime before Mau was fourteen.

After his grandfather died, Mau began training with his father, Orranipui. Mau learned more about navigating by stars wofanu from his father, and how to fish and build canoes.

When his father died before he turned fifteen, [5] Mau was adopted by his aunt and uncle. Sometime around the age of eighteen, [6] Mau's aunt and uncle sent him to study with Angora, an acclaimed navigator.

It was to be the last pwo held on Satawal for the next fifty years. After the ceremony, Mau lived for a month in the canoe house where he received rigorous lessons from three navigators.

Daily life in Mau's village on Satawal involved harvesting taro and gathering breadfruit and coconut. The Satawalese people also raised chicken and pork [15] and caught fish, their primary source of protein.

Local materials were used to construct outrigger canoes called proa. The island's isolation helped preserve the lifestyle of the Satawalese people and Mau's role as a navigator.

American missionaries who arrived after World War II [17] built the first church and school on Satawal. In the late s, Mau attempted to verify his navigational knowledge of the wider Pacific by working as a seaman on an inter-island ship run by the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

McCoy became interested in Satawalese navigation, published several articles on the topic and kept in touch with the anthropologist Ben Finney , who was researching Polynesian navigation.

The project goal was to test the hypothesis that Polynesians made intentional non-instrument voyages across the Pacific. Tevake, a renowned Polynesian navigator, had died in [22] and only six others were known.

Mau feared that traditional navigation would die in his own culture, just as it had in Hawaii. He had tried to teach the young men of Satawal the skills passed on to him, but he was not optimistic.

The members of the younger generation were too busy with school and too attracted to Western culture to undertake the rigorous course of study and apprenticeship.

Further, Mau's people did not seem to care that traditional navigation was dying and could be lost forever. Mau's first-hand knowledge of traditional navigation had been accumulated in Northern Hemisphere study and sailings, but the voyage to Tahiti required Mau to familiarise himself with the geography and night sky of the Southern Hemisphere.

Of the preparation, Finney writes,. To prepare Mau Piailug for the voyage, David Lewis briefed him on the geography of the islands in this part of the Pacific and the winds and currents that could be expected along the way, all information that an early Polynesian navigator acquainted with this route would have carried in his head.

In addition, to alert Mau of how the elevation of stars above the northern and southern horizons would change as the canoe sailed farther and farther south, we held training sessions in Honolulu's Bishop Museum planetarium to graphically show how, for example, as one sailed toward Tahiti[,] Polaris sank lower and lower on the northern horizon until it disappeared at the equator while the Southern Cross curved higher and higher in the sky.

During his first few days of the voyage, Mau received further coaching on the pattern of winds and currents from Rodo Williams, a veteran Tahitian seaman on the crew who the year before had sailed a yacht from Tahiti to Hawaii and could therefore provide Mau with a firsthand account of what he could expect to encounter.

Their collaboration proved successful when, on the 31st day at sea on the voyage, Mau stated soon they would see land, and the next day, Tahiti.

A few hours later, they spotted land-based white terns Gygis alba followed by a diminution of the trade-wind swell. That night, they spotted Mataiva.

After a brief stopover, with little more than another day's sailing they made landfall at Tahiti where they were welcomed by 17, people, half the population of Tahiti.

He spent years training on his own and with Mau. Mau's training and mentoring helped Nainoa achieve that goal in the Tahiti voyage.

It marked the first time in over years that a Native Hawaiian had mastered the stars, the seas, the birds, and the winds to guide a sailing canoe from Hawaii to Tahiti and back.

Sir James Henare, the most revered of the elders of Tai Tokerau , got up and said, "You've proven that it could be done. And you've also proven that our ancestors did it Mau had seen Nainoa succeed in the and — voyages; finally, in this voyage, Mau saw proof that the knowledge was carried forward to the next generation.

The voyage was to pay homage to master navigator Mau Piailug and to thank him for his teachings. She was the first Hawaiian voyaging canoe to visit the far reaches of Micronesia and her appearance stimulated interest in Micronesians in their own cultural history.

On March 18, Mau presided over the first pwo ceremony for navigators in 56 years on the island of Satawal. Five Native Hawaiians and eleven other people were inducted into pwo as master navigators, including Nainoa Thompson and Mau's son, Sesario Sewralur.

Maisu was given to Mau on behalf of all the voyaging families and organizations that actively continue to sail and practice the traditions taught by Mau Piailug.

After a long struggle with diabetes, Mau died on his home island of Satawal at Micronesia time, [40] Monday, July 12, Mau's son Henry Yarofalpiy will continue teaching students about their culture, preserving the legacy of his father.

At the ceremony, secretary Lawrence M. Small said, "The rebirth of non-instrument navigation came about largely due to this man, Mau Piailug".

Pfeiffer Medal on July 12, , honouring him for "exceptional dedication to the advancement of maritime affairs and the perpetuation of maritime heritage in Hawaii and the Pacific".

Mau also was honored for his "devotion and outstanding civic leadership" and for exemplifying "the spirit and purpose of the Museum's founder Charles Reed Bishop".

Revived interest in preserving traditional culture and navigation methods reinvigorated the art of canoe building and cultural studies in Hawaii, New Zealand, Rarotonga, and Tahiti, [47] as well as Mau's homeland of Satawal.

Before his death in , Cook hypothesized that Polynesians shared common ancestry; he even pinned their origin to Asia. However, Cook's theory did not prevent debate among scholars.

Norwegian ethnographer Thor Heyerdahl hypothesized that the Pacific was settled by voyages from South America and set out to prove that with his Kon-Tiki expedition.

New Zealander Andrew Sharp proposed the accidental voyaging hypothesis in , which erroneously argued that Oceania was too vast to have been settled by intentional voyaging so migrations must have happened by accidental drift voyages.

He stated that voyages of more than miles were likely accidental voyages, with landfall at the mercy of wind and current. Finney disagreed with the accidental voyaging portion of Sharp's hypothesis.

To investigate the problem, he founded the Polynesian Voyaging Society with Herb Kane and Tommy Holmes in , intent on building a voyaging canoe to sail from Hawaii to Tahiti to test whether intentional two-way voyaging throughout Oceania could be replicated.

They prove Polynesians share common ancestry with indigenous Taiwanese and East Asians. Navigator training was historically interwoven with culture and ritual.

Great discretion had to be shown in candidate selection so that the knowledge preserved through oral tradition would have the greatest chance of survival.

A master navigator's rank was equal or superior to a village chief's rank. Prudent navigation relies on no single technique but instead synthesizes position from multiple inputs.

Underway, this constant synthesis makes it easy to spot the navigator by being the one with red eyes from sleep deprivation.

For a traditionally trained navigator, these inputs include physical signals from the sea, skies, and stars, memory signals from his knowledge of star, swell, and wind compasses; and cultural knowledge recorded in chants, dances, and stories.

Examples of physical signals include the color, temperature, and taste salinity of seawater; floating plant debris; sightings of land-based seabirds flying out to fish; cloud type, color, and movement; wind direction, speed, and temperature; the direction and nature of ocean swells and waves; the position of stars in the sky, and his estimation of the speed, current set , and leeway of his sailing craft.

The "compass" he carried was not magnetic but a mental model of where islands are located and the star points that one could use to navigate between them.

This mental model would have taken years of study to build; dances, chants rong , [61] and stories help him to recall complex relationships of geography and location.

The stars give him highly reliable position information when visible, but navigators such as Mau managed to keep their position and tracks in mind even when blocked by clouds, using other references such as wind and swell as proxies.

Mau's Carolinian star compass pictured is the basis for Nainoa's modern Hawaiian star compass. Apart from the bulk of training, which happens at sea, historically boys were taught in the men's house with pebbles, shells, or pieces of coral, representing stars, laid on the sand in a circular pattern.

The bits of shell or coral that are chosen to represent which star or constellation is arbitrary, but generally, larger pieces are used for points of the compass while smaller pieces represent important stars between those points.

In Mau's star compass, these points are not necessarily equidistant. The outer circular formation represents the horizon, with the canoe its center point.

The eastern half of the circle depicts reference stars' rising points on the horizon tan while the western half depicts their setting points tupul.

Swell patterns of prevailing trade winds are represented by sticks not depicted here overlaying the star compass in the form of a square.

All knowledge is retained by memory with the help of dances, chants, and stories, wherein the stars are enumerated as people or characters in the stories.

One aspect of the Carolinian method of estimating longitude on inter-island sailings is to visualize the target island relative to a second reference island's alignment with a succession of selected stars, points of the star compass.

It is a refined system of dead reckoning whereby the navigator constantly synthesizes his position relative to the reference island's location in his mental model.

The most remarkable thing is that the reference island lu pongank [63] may be over the horizon, unseen, even imaginary. In its simplest form the star compass describes 32 points at which key stars rise on the eastern horizon and set on the western horizon.

North latitude is fairly easy to determine because the North Pole has a zenith star easily seen with the naked eye, called Polaris Wuliwulifasmughet.

When one travels further north, Polaris appears higher in the sky. Only at the true north pole is Polaris directly overhead at nearly 90 degrees altitude.

At 45 degrees north latitude, Polaris is 45 degrees above the northern horizon. Near the equator, Polaris' altitude approaches zero degrees, but for the viewer just further south, Polaris will have disappeared below the northern horizon.

Continuing south from the equator, though Polaris is no longer visible, Crux Luubw , [65] the "Southern Cross", will have risen above the southern horizon.

Travelling further southward, Crux rises higher in the sky. Through Crux's longest axis, an imaginary line bisecting Gacrux and Acrux points southward toward the southern celestial pole.

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